A High Proportion of Orthopaedic Hand Trauma Transfers are Unnecessary: A Systematic Review


  • Cole Johnson Texas Tech University Health Science Center El Paso TX.
  • Carlos Hernandez Texas Tech University Health Science Center, El Paso, TX
  • Christopher Bacak Texas Tech University Health Science Center, El Paso, TX
  • Alexis B Sandler Texas Tech University Health Science Center, El Paso, TX
  • Benjamin Childs The Randolph Institute, Palm Beach FL
  • Michael D Eckhoff The Randolph Institute, Palm Beach FL
  • Nata Parnes Carthage Area Hospital, Carthage, NY, and Claxton Hepburn Medical Center, Ogdensburg, NY




Business, Management, human resources, cost, value, efficiency


Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of inappropriate hand trauma tranfers and related medical and economic impact based on currently published literature.

Design: Systematic literature review.

Methods:  We conducted a literature review on inappropriate hand trauma transfers using Google Scholar via Harzing PoP software. We included English language articles from the U.S. that described the appropriateness of hand transfers and characteristics of those transfers. Additional articles were found during the review of the articles found via the software search.

Main outcome measurement: Appropriateness of transfer, patient or other factors associated with transfer, cost of transfer

Results: The search produced 273 articles regarding “inappropriate hand transfers” of which 6 were used for the review and an additional 5 were included that were found outside of the software search. A major finding was that patients that were uninsured or underinsured were found to be associated with inappropriate transfer. 3-11 Other associations involving transfers were the time of day of transfer, type and complexity of the injury. 1-5,7-11

Conclusion: A significant amount of hand trauma transfers are inappropriate, with time and health insurance coverage contributing to inappropriate transfers. This has significant clinical and financial impact on affected patients as well as healthcare institutions



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How to Cite

Johnson, C., Hernandez , C. ., Bacak , C. ., Sandler, A. B. . ., Childs, B., Eckhoff, M. D. . ., & Parnes, N. . . (2024). A High Proportion of Orthopaedic Hand Trauma Transfers are Unnecessary: A Systematic Review. Journal of Orthopaedic Business, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.55576/job.v4i2.43

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